Constitutional / Non-Constitutional / Statutory / Regulatory / Various Quisi-Judicial Bodies

Competition Commission of India (CCI)

• The Competition Commission of India (CCI) was established under the Competition Act, 2002 for the administration, implementation and
enforcement of the Act, and was duly
constituted in March 2009.
• Chairman and members are appointed by the central government.

The following are the objectives of the

  • To prevent practices having adverse effect on competition.
  • To promote and sustain competition in markets.
  • To protect the interests of consumers.
  • To ensure freedom of trade.

Functions of the commission:
It is the duty of the Commission to eliminate practices having adverse effect on competition, promote and sustain competition, protect the interests of consumers and ensure freedom of trade in the markets of India.

The Commission is also required to give opinion on competition issues on a reference received from a statutory authority established under any law and to undertake competition advocacy, create public awareness and impart training on competition issues.

The Competition Act:
The Competition Act, 2002, as amended by the Competition (Amendment) Act, 2007, prohibits anti- competitive agreements, abuse of dominant position by enterprises and regulates combinations (acquisition, acquiring of control and Mergers and acquisitions), which causes or likely to cause an appreciable adverse effect on competition within India.

Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha

• The Deputy Chairman is a constitutional position created under Article 89 of the Constitution, which specifies that Rajya Sabha shall choose one of its MPs to be the Deputy Chairman as often as the position becomes vacant.

The Deputy Chairman vacates his office in the following three cases:

  • if he ceases to be a member of the Rajya Sabha;
  • if he resigns by writing to the Chairman; and
  • if he is removed by a resolution passed by a majority of all the members of the Rajya Sabha. Such a resolution can be moved only after giving 14 days’ advance notice.

• The Deputy Chairman performs the duties of the Chairman’s office when it
is vacant or when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President. He also acts as the Chairman when the latter is absent from the sitting of the House. In both the cases, he has all the powers of the Chairman.
• The Deputy Chairman is not subordinate to the Chair-man. He is directly responsible to the Rajya Sabha.
• Like the Chairman, the Deputy Chairman, while presiding over the House, cannot vote in the first instance; he can only exercise a casting vote in the
case of a tie.
• When a resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman is under consideration of the House, he cannot preside over a sitting of the House,
though he may be present.
• When the Chairman presides over the House, the Deputy Chairman is like any other ordinary member of the House. He can speak in the House, participate in its proceedings and vote on any question before the House.
• Like the Chairman, the Deputy Chairman is also entitled to a regular salary and allowance. They are fixed by Parliament and are charged on the
Consolidated Fund of India.
• The Deputy Chair is the one position that is elected solely by members of
Rajya Sabha.

Central Water Commission

Central Water Commission is a premier Technical Organization of India in the field of Water Resources and is presently functioning as an attached office of the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Government of India.
• Central Water Commission is headed by a Chairman, with the status of Ex-Officio Secretary to the Government of India.

The Commission is entrusted with the general responsibilities of initiating, coordinating and furthering in consultation of the State Governments concerned, schemes for control, conservation and utilization of water resources throughout the country, for purpose of Flood Control, Irrigation, Navigation, Drinking Water Supply and
Water Power Development.

o It also undertakes the investigations, construction and execution of any such schemes as required.
o The work of the Commission is divided among 3 wings namely, River Management Wing (RM), Designs and Research Wing (D&R) and Water Planning and Projects Wing (WP&P).

Appellate Tribunal against Benami Transactions

• The Union Cabinet has approved setting up of Appellate Tribunal and appointment of Adjudicating Authority for speedy disposal of cases related
to benami transactions.

Salient Features:

  • Under the Prohibition of Benami Property Transactions Act (PBPT), 1998, the government will appoint Adjudicating Authority and establish Appellate Tribunal.
  • The officials will come from the existing posts at the same level from the Income Tax Department and the Central Board of Direct Taxes.
  • The Adjudicating Authority and Appellate Tribunal will be based in the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCTD)
  • Benches of Adjudicating Authority may sit in Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, and the necessary notification in this regard will be issued after consultation with the Chairperson of the proposed Adjudicating Authority.

Benefits of the Tribunals:

The approval will result in effective and better administration of cases referred to the Adjudicating Authority and speedy disposal of appeals filed against the order of the Adjudicating Authority before the Appellate Tribunal.

It would provide first stage review of administrative action under the PBPT Act. Establishment of the proposed Appellate Tribunal would provide an appellate mechanism for the order passed by the Adjudicating Authority under the PBPT Act.


Earlier the cabinet had notified sessions courts in 34 states and Union Territories, which will act as special courts for trial of offences under the benami transaction law. The rules and all the provisions of
the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act came into force on November 1, 2016.

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)

• The Indian Atomic Energy Commission was first setup in August 1948 in the
Department of Scientific Research.
• Later on, in accordance with a Government Resolution, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was established in the Department of Atomic Energy.
• The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was setup on August 3, 1954 under
the direct charge of the Prime Minister through a Presidential Order.
• According to the Resolution constituting the AEC, the Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Atomic Energy is ex-officio Chairman of the Commission.
• The other Members of the AEC are appointed on the recommendation of
the Chairman, AEC and after approval by the Prime Minister.
• Important functions of the Atomic Energy Commission are:

  • To organise research in atomic science in the country.
  • To train, atomic scientists in the country.
  • To promote nuclear research in commission’s own laboratories in
  • To undertake prospecting of atomic minerals in India and to extrac such minerals for use on industrial scale.
  • It also gives financial assistance to autonomous national institutes doing research in the field and has various other organisations under it.

Law Commission of India

• Law Commission of India is an executive body established by an order of the Government of India.
• The Law Commission shall, on a reference made to it by the Central
Government or suo-motu, undertake research in law and review of existing
laws in India for making reforms therein and enacting new legislations.
• It shall also undertake studies and research for bringing reforms in the
justice delivery systems for elimination of delay in procedures, speedy disposal of cases, reduction in cost of litigation etc.
• Its membership primarily comprises legal experts, who are entrusted a
mandate by the Government.
• The Commission is established for a fixed tenure and works as an advisory
body to the Ministry of Law and Justice. The first Law Commission was established during the British Raj era in 1834 by the Charter Act of 1833.
• The first Law Commission of independent India was established in 1955 for a three-year term.

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